Articles 6, 12 and 17 of the Kyoto Protocol and Article 6 of the Paris Agreement are very similar. Participation in the mechanisms is voluntary, they must contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gases, ensure the integrity of the environment and promote sustainable development, and strong rules, modalities and procedures are needed to regulate their operation. In addition, both the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement provide that a portion of the proceeds will be used to cover administrative costs and support developing countries threatened by climate change in order to adapt. In July 2020, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) announced that it would estimate a 20% probability of global warming relative to pre-industrial values of more than 1.5 degrees Celsius in at least one year between 2020 and 2024, with 1.5 degrees Celsius as a key threshold under the Paris Agreement. [75] [76] [7] For Environmental Integrity, see z.B A Michaelowa, “The strengths and weaknesses of the CDM in relation to new and emerging market mechanisms” (Document 2 on the CDM Policy Dialogue, June 2012). For additionality, see UNFCCC, Tool01, Tool for the demonstration and assessment of additionality, version 07.0.0. See also the UNFCCC, Tool02, the tool combines to identify the baseline scenario and demonstrate additionality; CDM EB, annual report to COP/MOP, FCCC/KP/CMP/2014/5. See also Lambert Schneider, “Evaluation of the Additionality of CDM Projects: Practical Experiences and Lessons Learned” (2009) 9(3) Climate Policy 242-254; Joelle De Sepibus, “The Environmental Integrity of the CDM Mechanism – A Legal Analysis of Its Institutional and Procedural Deficiencies” (NCCR Working Paper No. 2009/24); Johannes Alexeew, Linda Bergset, Kristin Meyer, Julian Petersen, Lambert Schneider and Charlotte Unger, “An Analysis of the Relationship Between the Additionality of CDM Projects and Their Contribution to Sustainable Development” (2010) 10(3) International Environmental Agreements 233-248.

For sustainable development, see Sebastian Oberthur and H Herman Ott, The Kyoto Protocol, International Climate Policy for the 21st Century (Springer 1999).