The Agreement applies to trade in fish and other seafood products (Articles 4 and II). The EFTA States and Turkey grant each other duty-free access to imports of all fish and seafood products. Trade in basic agricultural products is covered by three bilateral agricultural agreements between Iceland, Norway and Switzerland/Liechtenstein and Turkey. These agreements are part of the instruments for the creation of the free trade area between the EFTA States and Turkey. They provide for important concessions on both sides, taking into account the respective sensitivities. Each agreement contains specific rules of origin, usually based on the “fully acquired” origin criteria. The customs union entered into force on 31 December 1995. It covers all industrial goods, but not agriculture (with the exception of processed agricultural products), services or public procurement. Bilateral trade concessions apply to agricultural products as well as coal and steel products. The Agreement contains provisions on trade policy remedies (Articles 2.17-2.19), namely subsidies and countervailing measures, anti-dumping measures and global safeguard measures based on the relevant WTO agreements. Turkey, a Contracting Party to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1947 (GATT) and a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) since 1995, implements free trade agreements in accordance with Article XXIV of the GATT 1947.

Under this article, Turkey could grant, under certain conditions, more favourable treatment to its trading partners under a customs union or free trade area, without extending this treatment to all WTO members. The modernised Free Trade Agreement BETWEEN EFTA and Turkey was signed on 25 June 2018 and covers trade in goods (industrial products, seafood and processed agricultural products), trade in services, protection of intellectual property rights, public procurement, competition, trade and sustainable development. In addition, the updated bilateral agricultural agreements between the various EFTA countries and Turkey continue to be part of the instruments for the creation of the free trade area. The provisions on the protection of intellectual property rights (Article 15 and new Annex XII) concern, inter alia, patents, trademarks, copyrights and geographical indications. The rules of origin (Annex I) are governed by the Regional Agreement on Pan-European-Mediterranean Rules of Origin. This will allow the accumulation of materials originating in the EFTA States, Turkey and the other Member States of the Pan-Euro Med as soon as the corresponding agreements have been concluded between the parties concerned. Chapter 3 closely follows the approach of the WTO General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). It covers trade in all services sectors among the four types of supply. Separate Annexes concerning the recognition of qualifications of service providers (Annex X), free movement of natural persons providing services (Annex XI), electronic commerce (Annex XIII), telecommunications services (Annex XVI), co-productions (Annex XV), financial services (Annex XVI), health services (Annex XVII), tourism and travel services (Annex XVII) and international road transport and transport services Road sport and logistics services (Annex XIX) complete the chapter with additional sectoral disciplines. The lists of specific obligations and derogations from the most-favoured-nation regime of the Contracting Parties are set out in Annexes XII and IX respectively.

These schedules are regularly reviewed in order to further liberalise trade in services between the two parties. Turkey negotiates and excludes, alongside the EU, free trade agreements with third countries with a view to negotiating and concluding free trade agreements. . . .