Domestic opposition to free trade agreements crystallized around the announcement of the Japanese government`s intention to join the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) in 2011 and 2012, and Japanese farmers staged large demonstrations against the agreement to undermine food security that agricultural liberalization could have under the proposed agreement, particularly with regard to rice. Zenroren (National Confederation of Trade Unions) also opposes the agreement, raising concerns about job losses, the opening of the economy to AMERICAN capital and the erosion of living standards and working conditions. Many Japanese opponents see the TPP as a bilateral free trade agreement with the United States. The United States and Japan have concluded a trade agreement on market access for certain agricultural and industrial products, with plans to continue negotiations for an expanded free trade agreement. On October 17, 2019, the United States and Japan agreed on market access for certain agricultural and industrial products. Japan`s legislature approved the agreement on December 5, 2019. President 9974`s proclamation was issued on December 26, 2019, with the effective date of January 1, 2020. On 30 December 2019, the Communication of the Federal Register (84 FR 72187) on the implementation of the agreement was published. Until recently, Japan focused its bilateral negotiating program on some countries around the Pacific. Important agreements have been signed with Singapore (2002), Malaysia (2004), Mexico (2004), the Philippines (2006), Indonesia (2007), Chile (2007), Thailand (2007), ASEAN as a whole (2008) and Vietnam (2008). Under President Trump`s leadership, the United States and Japan agreed on early outcomes of negotiations on market access for certain agricultural and industrial products, as well as digital trade. The United States looks forward to continuing negotiations with Japan for a comprehensive agreement that would address the remaining tariff and non-tariff barriers and ensure fairer and more balanced trade. In mid-2006, Tokyo announced the launch of free trade negotiations with Brunei, concluded in 2007.

Japan`s agreements with Brunei and Indonesia are unique in that they guarantee Tokyo access to oil and gas supplies. Negotiations with India and Australia began in 2007, while somewhere in the pipeline, Colombia, China, Korea, Cambodia and Laos are also on the agenda.