The Senate`s opposition to the Treaty of Versaille cited Article 10 of the treaty, which dealt with collective security and the League of Nations. This article, opponents argued, handed over the war powers of the U.S. government to the League Council. The resistance came from two groups: the “irreconcilable”, who in no way refused to join the League of Nations, and the “reservations”, led by the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Henry Cabot Lodge, who were ready to ratify the treaty with amendments. While Lodge was rejected in its attempt to pass contract changes in September, it managed to reach 14 “bookings” in November. In a final vote on 19 March 1920, the Treaty of Versailler was not ratified by seven votes. Subsequently, the U.S. government signed the Treaty of Berlin on August 25, 1921. It was a separate peace agreement with Germany, which provided that the United States would enjoy all the “rights, privileges, compensation, reparations, reparations or benefits” granted by the Treaty of Versailler, subject to any mention of the Federation of Nations, to which the United States had never adhered. The provisions of the agreement were immediately and often violated by North and South Vietnamese forces without an official response from the United States. The North Vietnamese have accused the United States of carrying out bombings in northern Vietnam during this period. In March 1973, open fighting broke out and North Vietnamese crimes extended their control until the end of the year. Two years later, a massive North Vietnamese offensive seized South Vietnam on April 30, 1975, after which the two countries separated since 1954 met on July 2, 1976 as Vietnam.

[3] Nixon asked the eminent Asian-American politician Anna Chennault to be his “channel to Mr. Thieu”; Chennault agreed and regularly reported to John Mitchell that Thieu had no intention of attending a peace conference. On November 2, Chennault told the South Vietnamese ambassador: “I just heard from my boss in Albuquerque, who says his boss [Nixon] is going to win. And you`ll tell your boss [Thieu] to hold on for a while longer. [8] Johnson learned about the NSA and was furious that Nixon had “blood on his hands” and that Senate Minority Leader Everett Dirksen agreed with Johnson that such an action was a “betrayal.” [9] [10] [11] Defence Minister Clark Clifford considered this to be an unlawful violation of the Logan Act. [12] In response, President Johnson ordered the listening of members of the Nixon campaign. [13] [14] Dallek wrote that Nixon`s efforts “probably made no difference” because Thieu was unwilling to participate in the talks and there was little chance of reaching an agreement before the elections; However, his use of the information provided by Harlow and Kissinger was morally questionable and Vice President Hubert Humphrey`s decision not to make Nixon`s actions public is “an unusual act of political decency.” [15] Contract negotiations have also been weakened by the absence of other important nations. Russia had fought as one of the allies until its new Bolshevik government withdrew from the war in December 1917. The Allies refused to recognize the new Bolshevik government and therefore did not invite their representatives to the peace conference. The Allies were upset by the Bolshevik decision to reject Russia`s unpaid financial debts to the Allies and to publish the texts of secret agreements between allies on the post-war period.

The Allies also excluded the defeated central powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria). On January 15, 1973, President Nixon announced the suspension of offensive actions against North Vietnam. On January 23, Kissinger and Tha met again and signed a contract essentially identical to that of three months earlier.